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The cumulative grade point average (CGPA) is a way to assess a student's academic progress over a predetermined time period, like a semester or school year. It was implemented by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) for Class X students as a component of the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) system.

Instead of receiving a score for each course they study, students are given grades under the CGPA system. The overall CGPA for the student is then determined using these grades. The cumulative grade point average (CGPA), which excludes any optional classes taken, is the student's overall grade point average across all subjects.

The grades that are given to students are used to track their success in each topic, and they are determined by how well they performed in that subject. Typically, grades are denoted by letters, such as A, B, C, D, and so forth. The grades are determined using a set of predetermined standards, including the student's performance on tests, the percentage of marks they received, and their overall performance for the entire year.

The CGPA method aims to offer a more comprehensive and adaptable assessment of a student's academic performance. Instead of merely looking at the percentage score overall, it considers the student's performance across all subjects. Students who may struggle in certain topics but thrive in others may find this helpful. The CGPA method also places less emphasis on getting high grades and more emphasis on a student's overall performance, which can aid in lowering the pressure and stress connected to conventional examination systems.

As a component of the Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) system, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) adopted the Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) system in 2011. Before this, the CBSE evaluated and rewarded students' marks according to multiple standards. The way in which student academic achievement is assessed and reported underwent a substantial change with the advent of the CGPA system.

The CGPA method was chosen to take the place of the previous standards in order to provide a more comprehensive and adaptable assessment of students' academic performance throughout the year. Instead than only looking at the student's overall percentage

The introduction of the CGPA system in 2011 was a significant step forward for the CBSE and for the education system in India as a whole. It is now widely used in schools and colleges across the country and has become an important tool for evaluating and reporting student performance.

The CGPA is used to denote the overall performance of the student in the academic session as grades. The CGPA system was introduced to ease the burden of marks and the stress of the examinations among students. Due to this reason, the CGPA system is also used in some of the bachelor's and Master's Degree.

The CGPA system defines the grades of a student in its academics. Although, it has some pros and cons.

- The CGPA system has introduced grading which has reduced the pressure of scoring higher marks as the marks are not written on the report cards.
- The attention to different subjects can be given to different subjects as per the grades. Capability and Performance of subjects can be determined easily.
- The students can be divided into different categories. This makes it easier for teachers to pay attention to different groups accordingly.
- It provides the students with a clear idea of their strengths and weakness in academics.

- The CGPA system eradicates the sense of competition which is the basis of motivation for some of the students. By removing the competition, the students may aim for clearing only the grades and not scoring higher.
- The result is not accurate. Grades don't show the performance of the students accurately. In the CGPA system, 91 marks are also A1 and 100 marks are also A1. Similarly, a score of 89 is A2 and 92 is A1 which is a big difference in the grade but only differs by 3 marks in reality.
- In the CCE system, the activities and projects are also responsible for the Grades of a student. So, a student might get higher grades just by performing better in activities and not in Examinations.

GPA is grade point average which signifies the grades obtained by the student in the semester or term. CGPA is different from GPA as CGPA is the grades obtained by the student over the course or an entire year. Though GPA and CGPA both evaluate the measure of abilities of a student, CBSE has the curriculum which determines the CGPA only but not the GPA. While the colleges which use the CGPA system calculate the GPA of the students too. Different colleges have different criteria for giving GPA to the students. The basic feature of the GPA and CGPA remains the same that GPA is for Grades obtained over a term and CGPA is Grades obtained over the course or whole year.

It can't be concluded that one of the systems is good or bad, but some facts can be taken into consideration. Both the systems have its pros and cons.

- The CGPA system is not accurate since it doesn't gives exact the details of the marks obtained by the student.
- But it relieves the students from scoring higher and rather focus on learning in an enhanced way.

The Central Board of Secondary Education has a curriculum where 5 subjects are compulsary and one is optional.

**• TO CALCULATE AVERAGE CGPA**

Assume the grade points of the 5 subjects as:

S1,S2,S3,S4,S5

Grade point(GP)=S1+S2+S3+S4+S5

CGPA=GP/5

EXAMPLE:

Subject 1 Grades= 10

Subject 2 Grades=9

Subject 3 Grades=10

Subject 4 Grades=8

Subject 5 Grades=10

GP=10+9+10+8+10=47

"CGPA=47/5=9.4"

**• TO CALCULATE PERCENTAGE USING CGPA OBTAINED**

Percentage=(CGPAx9.5)

EXAMPLE:

CGPA=9.4

Percentage=9.4x9.5=89.3

**• TO CALCULATE CGPA USING THE PERCENTAGE**

CGPA=(Percentage/9.5)

EXAMPLE:

Percentage=89.3

CGPA=89.3/9.5=9.4

Marks | Grades | CGPA |
---|---|---|

91 to 100 | A1 | 10 |

81 to 90 | A2 | 9 |

71 to 80 | B1 | 8 |

61 to 70 | B2 | 7 |

51 to 60 | C1 | 6 |

41 to 50 | C2 | 5 |

33 to 40 | D | 4 |

21 to 32 | E1 | 0 |

00 to 20 | E2 | 0 |

There are several grading systems used around the world which are similar to the CGPA system used by the CBSE.

- In England and Wales, the GCSE board uses a grading system where grades range from 9(highest) to 1(lowest). Generally, a 4 and above is considered a pass and 3 and lower as fail.
- Most colleges and Universities in the United States have a grading system where grades are awarded as A to F. These grades are converted to GPA.
- In Japan, 90-100 marks are equal to grade AA or T, 80-89 are equal to A, 70-79 are equal to B, 60-69 are equal to C and below that F which is Fail.